Volume 8, Issue 2, June 2020, Page: 25-32
Factors Influencing Utilization of Child Immunization Services in a Tertiary Health Institution in Sokoto North-West Nigeria
Oluwole Victor Oluwalomola, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Texila American University, Georgetown, Guyana South America
Ebenezer Obi Daniel, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Texila American University, Georgetown, Guyana South America
Paul Olaiya Abiodun, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Texila American University, Georgetown, Guyana South America
Israel Olukayode Popoola, Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
Kabir Yunusa Amari, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
Ahmed Mamuda Bello, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Texila American University, Georgetown, Guyana South America
Christie Omolola Adams, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Texila American University, Georgetown, Guyana South America
Olayinka Victor Ojo, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Texila American University, Georgetown, Guyana South America
Received: May 6, 2020;       Accepted: May 22, 2020;       Published: Jun. 3, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.iji.20200802.13      View  210      Downloads  70
Abstract
Despite our hygiene and safety some infections can still spread hence the need for vaccination and immunization of people especially during childhood. The high effectiveness of immunization in preventing diseases and death as made immunization one of public health’s most cost-effective intervention. When parents fail or do not complete their child’s vaccination, diseases that are long gone might re-appear. This study aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers/guide towards immunization and the factors affecting utilization of immunization services in a tertiary institution in North-West Nigeria. One hundred and thirty-eight mothers/guides participated in this cross-sectional study. Respondents were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. A 47-item questionnaire on the self-reported knowledge, attitudes and practices towards utilization of immunization services was formulated and used for data collection. A focus group discussion which involved three vaccination health workers working in the health facility was also carried out in the study. A large proportion of the participants are within the age group of 21-30 (60.14%). Those who had no formal education, 53 (38.41%) were the majority. This study revealed that 93% have poor knowledge while 7% have good knowledge about immunization. 57.97% have good attitudes and 42.03% have poor attitude towards immunization. 52.90% have good practices while 47.10% have poor practices towards immunization. Level of education was revealed to have statistical significant relationship with mothers/guides knowledge, attitude and practice towards immunization. Factors such as lack of husbands’ consent, absence from town, sick child, travel cost and travel distance were reported to affect utilization of immunization services. According to the outcome of this study, it implies that a high proportion of mothers/guides have poor knowledge about immunization. Efforts should be made to appropriately educate mothers/guides on various vaccine preventable diseases and appropriate immunization schedules to ensure better compliance. Lack of husband’s consent is a major factor that affects the utilization of child immunization services by mothers/guides. Therefore, efforts should be targeted at educating men and employ necessary campaigns to change gender discrimination in relationships and households in this part of Nigeria.
Keywords
Vaccination, Immunization, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Utilization
To cite this article
Oluwole Victor Oluwalomola, Ebenezer Obi Daniel, Paul Olaiya Abiodun, Israel Olukayode Popoola, Kabir Yunusa Amari, Ahmed Mamuda Bello, Christie Omolola Adams, Olayinka Victor Ojo, Factors Influencing Utilization of Child Immunization Services in a Tertiary Health Institution in Sokoto North-West Nigeria, International Journal of Immunology. Vol. 8, No. 2, 2020, pp. 25-32. doi: 10.11648/j.iji.20200802.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Ophori, E. A., Tula, M. Y., Azih, A. V., Okojie, R., & Ikpo, P. E. (2014). Current trends of immunization in Nigeria: prospect and challenges. Tropical medicine and health, 42 (2), 67–75. doi: 10.2149/tmh.2013-13.
[2]
Orenstein, W. A., & Ahmed, R. (2017). Simply put: Vaccination saves lives. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114 (16), 4031–4033. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1704507114.
[3]
Nasiru, S. G., Aliyu, G. G., Gasasira, A., Aliyu, M. H., Zubair, M., Mandawari, S. U., Waziri, H., Nasidi, A., & El-Kamary, S. S. (2012). Breaking community barriers to polio vaccination in Northern Nigeria: the impact of a grass roots mobilization campaign (Majigi). Pathogens and global health, 106 (3), 166–171. https://doi.org/10.1179/2047773212Y.0000000018
[4]
World Health Organization. Immunization, vaccines and biologicals. Global routine vaccination coverage 2011. Published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record on 2 November 2012.
[5]
Public Health Agency of Canada. Canadian immunization guide: seventh edition—2006. Available at: www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/cig-gci/index-eng.php. Accessed August 20, 2010.
[6]
Joan Gilmour, Christine Harrison, Leyla Asadi, Michael H. Cohen and Sunita Vohra. Childhood Immunization: When Physicians and Parents Disagree. Pediatrics November 2011, 128 (Supplement 4) S167-S174; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-2720E.
[7]
Egondi, T., Oyolola, M., Mutua, M. K., & Elung'ata, P. (2015). Determinants of immunization inequality among urban poor children: evidence from Nairobi's informal settlements. International journal for equity in health, 14, 24. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-015-0154-2.
[8]
Pielak K L., Mcintyre C. C., Tu A. W., Remple V. P., Halperin B. & Buxton J. A. (2010) Identifying attitudes, beliefs and reported practices of nurses and doctors as immunization providers. Journal of Advanced Nursing 66 (7), 1602–1611.
[9]
Dionne M, Boulianne N, Duval B, Lavoie F, Laflamme N, Carsley J, Valiquette L, Gagnon S, Rochette L, De Serres G 2001. Lack of conviction about vaccination in certain Quebec vaccinators. Canadian Journal of Public Health = Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique [01 Mar 2001, 92 (2): 100-104].
[10]
Leask J, Quinn HE, Macartney K, Trent M, Massey P, Carr C, Turahui J. (2008). Immunisation attitudes, knowledge and practices of health professionals in regional NSW. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health [01 Jun 2008, 32 (3): 224-229].
[11]
Nicole Boulianne, Bernard Duval, Gaston De Serres, et al., “Opinions of Quebec Parents and Vaccinators on the Usefulness of Chickenpox Vaccine,” Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 153-156, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1155/2001/948478.
[12]
Angadi, M. M., Jose, A. P., Udgiri, R., Masali, K. A., & Sorganvi, V. (2013). A study of knowledge, attitude and practices on immunization of children in urban slums of bijapur city, karnataka, India. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 7 (12), 2803–2806. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2013/6565.3763.
[13]
Manjunath, Usha & Pareek, R P. (2003). Maternal Knowledge and Perceptions about the Routine Immunization Programme –A study in a semi urban area in Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. Vol. 57, No. 4. 158-163.
[14]
Adefolalu OA, Kanma-Okafor OJ, Balogun MR. Maternal Knowledge, attitude and compliance regarding immunization of under five children in Primary Health Centres in Ikorodu Local Government Are, Lagos State. Journal of Clinical Science 2019; 16: 7-14.
[15]
Awodele O, Oreagba I. A, Akinyede A, Awodele D. F, Dolapo D, C. The Knowledge and attitude towards childhood immunization among mothers attending antenatal clinic in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, Vol 12, No 3, 2010.
[16]
Balarabe S. A. (2018). Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis in Northern Nigeria focus on preventive measures. Annals of African medicine, 17 (4), 163–167. doi: 10.4103/aam.aam_62_17.
[17]
PAN Advisory Committee on Immunisation. Paediatric Association of Nigeria (PAN) recommended routine immunization schedule for Nigerian children. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njp.v39i4.1 Accepted: 9th May 2012.
[18]
Antai D. Gender inequities, relationship power, and childhood immunization uptake in Nigeria: a population-based cross-sectional study. Int J Infect Dis. 2012; 16 (2): e136–45. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2011.11.004.
[19]
Kumar, Chandan & Devi, Rajkumari & Choudhary, Atul & Pugazhendi, Prof Sanchita & Pundir, Namrata. (2017). Factors Influencing Utilization of Immunization Services and Effectiveness of a Guided Health Action on Immunization Status among Parents of Under Fives in a Selected Area of Dehradun, Uttarakhand. 10.21088/cphn.2455.8621.2117.1.
[20]
Monguno A. K. (2013). Socio Cultural and Geographical Determinants of Child Immunisation in Borno State, Nigeria. Journal of public health in Africa, 4 (1), e10. doi: 10.4081/jphia.2013.e10.
Browse journals by subject